Monday, August 2, 2010
Tuesday, December 23, 2008
Ulu Camii is the largest mosque in Bursa and displays the original Ottoman architecture. It was built by Ali NECC between 1396 and 1399 following the orders of Sultan Bayezid I. It is a rectangular building with twenty domes distributed in four rows with five each fastened by twelve columns. It is twenty domes instead of the twenty independent mosques that the sultan promised to build to win the Battle of Nicopolis. It has two minarets. In the interior, there are 192 monumental inscriptions on the walls written by famous calligraphers. There are also a source (şadırvan) inside the mosque where the faithful practice abdesto before prayers, the dome that rises above the şadırvan is crowned with a skylight. Architecturally, the source reflects light and helps illuminate the interior of the mosque.
The interior space is designed to create a quiet and contemplative. Subdivisions formed by the different columns and domes create a feeling of privacy and intimacy. This environment contrasts with the later Ottoman mosques (see, for example, works of Sinan, chief architect of Solimán the Magnificent), which had very high central dome that emphasized verticality aspect as to convey the overwhelming power of the Ottoman Empire.
Bursa is the center of the automotive industry in Turkey. For decades, FIAT and Renault have had major production facilities in Bursa. It also highlights the textile industry and food; Coca Cola, Pepsi Cola and other beverage brands, as well as various factories and packaged fresh foods are in the industrial areas of the city.
Traditionally, Bursa has been famous for its fertile land and agriculture, although it is in decline due to the great industrialization of the city.
Bursa is also a major tourist center, some of the best ski slopes are located on Mount Uludağ, just a few kilometers from the city. The baths have been used since the Roman Empire for therapeutic purposes. Apart from the bathrooms located in hotels, the University of Uludağ has a physiotherapy center where he used the hot springs.
The oldest site that is known is the city of CIO, which gave Philip V of Macedonia to King of Prussia I Bithynia in the year 202 a. C. for his help against Pergamum and Heraclea Ponticus (now Karadeniz Eregli). Prussia changed the name in honor of himself, Prusa.
Bursa was evangelized by Saint Andrew, apostle of Bithynia, who probably accompanied by his brother, San Pedro, he exercised his apostolate in these lands. Bursa was one of the hotbeds of irradiation of primitive Christianity.
Subsequently, he acquired great importance due to its location on the western end of the Silk Road. It became the capital of the Ottoman Empire was conquered when the battered Byzantine Empire in 1326. The conquest of Edirne in 1365 led to that city also highlight, although Bursa remained an important administrative and commercial center, even when it lost its status as capital. Shortly after the Ottoman conquest, they opened a theological school in Bursa. This school has attracted many Muslim scholars from around the Middle East and continued its activity after the Bursa cease to be the capital.
During the Ottoman rule, Bursa was the source of most of the silk products of the environment of the sultan. Apart from local production, wild silk is imported from Iran and, occasionally, China, and was the leading manufacturer of kaftanes, pillows, embroidered silk and other products to the palaces of the sultan until the seventeenth century. It has also been historically important production of cars and knives horse. Currently, one can find a wide variety of handmade knives and other products, though, instead of cars of horses, there is a strong car industry.
It is often appointed to the city as "Yesil Bursa" ( "Green Bursa"), referring to the parks and gardens over by the city, and the forests that extend throughout the region. Near the town stands the mountain Uludağ, which has a ski resort very popular among the people. Bursa are also in the mausoleums of the Ottoman sultans, as well as numerous buildings constructed during the Ottoman period. The fertile plain that surrounds it, the thermal baths, the museum of archeology, among others, and the orderly urban growth are some of the elements that characterize Bursa.
Karagöz and Hacivat, two famous characters in shadow theater chinescas were actually two historical figures who lived and were buried in Bursa. Bursa is also home to some of the most famous Turkish dishes, especially the chestnuts frost and the Iskender kebap. They are also famous peaches. Among the districts that depend on Bursa, highlights the historic Nicene by its history and building. Bursa also has the University of Uludağ and its population is one of the highest educational standards in Turkey. Traditionally, it has received many immigrants from the Balkans, sometimes in large numbers.
The Uludağ is an extinct volcano, in the surroundings there are still hot springs.
Also known as Olympos Misios or bithynischer Olymp he will sometimes with the same set mountain from which the Sage after the Greek god of the Trojan war followed.
Uludağ is also the name of a limonadeartigen drink, which in Turkey under the name Gazoz is known. This drink was previously exception from the mountain spring water produced. This was also the reason why this drink is not anywhere in Turkey was to receive, it could only be produced as much as the source hergab.
Also, the Uludağ University in Bursa Uludağ which owes its name.
Smyrna was founded to 3000 a. C. by the 'léleges "in the place of Tepekule near the current Bayraklı. Between 2000 and 1200 a. C., was part of the Hittite empire, and after the collapse of the Hittite state from attacks by the Phrygian, was occupied by the Aeolian, who emigrated from Greece to Anatolia around the year 1000, following the fall of the Mycenaean Greece. He was then occupied by the Ionian, who lived with his swing.
It was conquered in 688 a. C. by the settlers of Colophon, turning it into a city-state and becoming part of the Ionian League. Remained constant battles with the nearby cities of Pergamum and Ephesus. It was conquered in 600 a. C. by the king of Lydia, Aliates, and then by the Persians in 546 a. C. Razed, the city lost the prestige of yesteryear during the following centuries, until Alexander the Great built, very close to it, a new city. 302 a. C., step under the domination of Lisímaco, a former general of Alexander the Great, after his victory over Antigonus I Monoftalmos. After the city step to be dominated by Seleucus and later by the nearby city of Pergamon (end of the third century BC-early second century BC). The Seleucus tried to retake control of the Ionian. Smyrna was beaten by Atala, of Pergamum. At 189-188 a. C., the Seleucus were expelled from the Joni and Asia Minor. Smyrna received territories for having fought alongside Rome and benefited from an independence protected by the Romans. The city received several Roman political exiles.
From the year 89 to 85 a. C., Smyrna, as all the cities of Asia Minor, said the king of Pontus, Mithridates VI Eupator in its war against Rome. Sila, Roman general, began the conquest of Asia Minor. Took Smyrna and forced all the inhabitants of the city to parade naked in the middle of winter. After the peace Dardanos (85 BC), which ended the war between Rome and Mithridates VI, Smyrna, as most of the free cities of Asia and the Aegean, entered the Roman province of Asia.
Later suffered the consequence of civil wars that beset the Roman Empire, which took under his power after occupying Pergamum.
During the advance of Christianity within the Roman Empire, was martyred within its walls Polycarp of Smyrna. The city takes relevance among Christians, to be one of the seven cities named in the apocalypse. Later, step into the hands of the Byzantines for about five centuries until in 1084 it was occupied by the Seljuk Turks, even though that occupation only lasted 13 years, since the Byzantines were able to recover again. The Ottomans, in 1322 he won the Byzantines, passing from hand to hand later, being ruled by the kingdom of Cyprus, and even Venice, the Papal States. Sacked in 1402, suffered a severe punishment: killing most of its inhabitants. The Ottomans, returned to take over in 1424 she retained until 1920, after the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and the Greek occupation as the Treaty of Sevres. In 1922 he returned to Turkish hands after the Greek War.
The Greek community of Smyrna was moved to Greece due to the agreements of population exchange between Greece and Turkey. More than a million Greeks left the city then, one of the largest Greek population of the former Ottoman Empire. The music brought by refugees from Smyrna would be the origin of rebétiko, one of the most important Greek music genres. During World War II, the city grew thanks to its strategic location and recovered from a terrible fire 20 years earlier had destroyed the city completely.